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Jargon Buster | Share research

Jargon Buster

Name Description

Behaviour Centred Design.

A general framework for behaviour change programming, founded in the latest behavioural science and design thinking.


Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

A group of subjects (as opposed to an individual subject) are randomised, with clusters being allocated to intervention arms and to control arms of a trial (Bland 2004). Clusters can include households, schools, villages and compounds. 


Department for International Development. It leads the UK’s work to end extreme poverty and focuses on job creation, unlocking the potential of girls and women, and emergency response.


Ecological Sanitation.

This follows the principle that human excreta is a potential resource and can contribute to better health, food production and reduce pollution.


Environmental Enteric Dysfunction.

An incompletely defined syndrome of inflammation, reduced absorptive capacity, and reduced barrier function in the small intestine associated with poor sanitation.


Food Hygiene Motivators. This acronym specifically relates to the Nepal food hygiene intervention.


Gender Based Violence.

Violence that targets individuals or groups on the basis of their gender.


Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point.

An internationally recognised system for reducing the risk of safety hazards in food.


Health Care Facility - includes hospitals, primary healthcare centres, feeding centres and others.  


Handwashing with Soap


International Development Select Committee (UK). This committee monitors DFID's policies, administration and spending, in addition to associated public bodies. 


Infection Prevention Control - preventing infections from developing and spreading to others.


The WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme - it has been monitoring global progress since 1990 and is resposible for reporting on Sustainable Development Goal targets and indicators related to WASH.


London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine - a world leading centre for research and postgraduate education in public and global health.


Monitoring and Evaluation - Monitoring is the systematic collection and analysis of information throughout a project in order to inform decision making and improve the project. Evaluation is the systematic assessment of project results at specific points within a project and is usually informed by monitoring data. 


Mass Drug Administration - administration of drugs to whole populations in a geographical area irrespective of disease status.


Menstrual Hygiene Management - using a clean menstrual management material to absorb or collect blood that can be changed in privacy as often as necessary for the duration of the menstruation period, using soap and water for washing the body as required, and having access to facilities to dispose of used menstrual management material (UNICEF and WHO, 2014).


Morbidity Management and Disability Prevention. This term applies to NTD control.


Maternal and Newborn Health. Maternal health refers to the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. Perinatal health refers to health from 22 weeks of gestation until 7 completed days after birth. Newborn health refers to babies' first month of life (WHO 2017).



Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (Tanzania)


(Tanzanian) National Campaign for Sanitation and Hygiene


National Institute for Medical Research, Tanzania. The largest public health research institution in Tanzania. 


Neglected Tropical Diseases - a diverse group of communicable diseases that prevail in tropical and subtropical condition in 149 countries.


Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment - the progress of estimating the risk from exposure to microorganisms.


Randomised Controlled Trial. A study in which a number of similar people are randomly assigned to two (or more) groups to test a specific intervention.


Shack Dwellers Federation of Namibia. A network of saving schemes with members throughout the country.


Shack/Slum Dwellers International. A network of community-based organisations of the urban poor in 33 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America.


Sanitation Hygiene Education and Water Supply in Bangladesh. This project, funded by DFID, UNICEF and the Government of Bangladesh, aims to improve standards of hygiene practices and behaviour in a sustainable way, while ensuring underserved areas have access to adequate sanitation and safe water.


Sanitation Investment Tracker. A suite of applications that can be used to track investment (and associated expenditure) in sanitation at household level.


(Indian) Society for Promoting Participative Eco-System Management. An NGO working in the area of natural resource management primarily in rural areas.


Sanitation-Related Psychosocial Stress - the social and psychological impact of limited access to santiation (more on this here)


Safe San Index. This is a metric developed to quantify the hygienic safety of a household’s defecation and human feces disposal practices in India. It was piloted during the Orissa trial. Read more.


Soil-Transmitted Helminths.These are intestinal worms infecting humans that are transmitted through contaminated soil.


(Government of India's) Total Sanitation Campaign. A demand-driven and incentive-based programme ideal to address India's rural sanitation crisis.


University of North Carolina. A public research university located in Chapel Hil, North Carolina, USA.


Value for Money. This is about using resources to deliver the most value for poor and marginalised people. It involves considering the four E's - economy, effectiveness, efficiency and equity - across the entire programme.


Water, Engineering and Development Centre (at Loughborough University). A leading education and research institute for developing knowledge and capacity in water and sanitation for low and middle-income counties.


World Health Organization


SHARE contributes to achieving universal access to effective, sustainable and equitable sanitation and hygiene by generating evidence to improve policy and practice worldwide.